Page 59. " Drs. james D. Trask and John R. Paul of Yale found the virus in human feces, which implied that the disease organism multiplied in the alimentary tract. Several American virologists, such as the FIRST Foundation grantees. In 1940 David Bodian and Howard Howe had given chimpanzees polio by feeding them the virus. In 1947 Joseph L. Melnick and Dorothy M. Horstmann had demonstrated that the animals developed antibody and resistance to reinfection after such feeding.
Page 301. " The national field trial had demonstrated how easily mass vaccinations could be administered in the schools.
Page 129. The inoculation of human beings with foreign spinal-cord material was frowned upon to begin with; inoculation with such material plus adjuvant would increase the danger of brain reactions.
Page 351. " Just because the sun rises when the rooster crows is no reason to assume that the rooster makes the sun rise."
Page 132. In 1946 Joseph Melnick, Dorothy M. Horstmann, and Robert Ward of Yale found virus in the blood in a human patient.
It is impossible for a person to begin to learn what he thinks he already knows. Epictetus.
Page 107. " The Mahoney strain, a Type 1 virus, had been isolated by Tommy Francis from a non-paralytic patient of that name in Ohio. The Saukett strain (Type 3) had been discovered in one of the wards in Municipal Hospital, Pittsburgh. The donor was a paralyzed boy named James Sarkett, whose name was misspelled by whoever labeled the stool sample.
Page 238. " We will match our personal integrity and the integrity of the University of Michigan against anyone who might even suspect the possibility of bias," said Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr.
Page 351. " By the end of 1957 half of all Americans below the age of 40 had received at least one injection of Salk vaccine.
Page 219. Sabin, was making progress toward isolation of living but tame strains of poliovirus.
Page 4. "No discussion of Salk's spectacular detour from the professional pecking order was complete without cynical reference to his close friendship with Basil O'Connor, high-flying President of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. As head of the organization through which the public fought polio, the celebrated lawyer was by far the most influential layman in American medical research. Scientists clucked their tongues at the flamboyant aggressiveness with which he promoted the polio menace, the case with which he raised more money for his cause than was collected for cancer, heart disease, or mental illness. But his organization dispensed grants of unprecedented generosity; scientist who deplored O'Connor's methods fell all over themselves to court the Foundation's favor. O'Connor knew this and kept himself unreachable, scrupulously making no scientific move without the approval of his advisory committee's of hard-boiled senior scientist; unreachable, the gossip suggested, until he met Salk and found in him a friend as close as a son." Jim's comment. Tom Rivers was the head of O'Connor's advisory board and O'Connor's daughter had polio.
Page 366. " By 1960, the Public Health Service found it necessary to be heard again. The American people knew nothing about reversion to virulence. All they knew was that the Salk vaccine was being publicized as a disappointment. Although vaccination campaign efforts were redoubled each spring fewer and fewer Americans sought vaccination.
Page 246. "Salk's paper, "Studies with Noninfectious Poliomyelitis Vaccines," was a laborious effort to explain his principles to anybody who cared to pay heed. After asserting that antibody represented immunity and that his killed vaccines produced ample antibody.
Page 258. " Radio and television crews! We were flabbergasted," says Melvin Glasser, who had gone to Ann Arbor to check the arrangements. " We had wanted the meeting at the National Academy of Sciences so the occasion would be as grave and solemn as any scientist could wish--and here the Michigan people were building a platform for television cameras right in the meeting room. We never thought Tommy Francis would permit it, but he was unperturbed.
Page 326. " The licensing of the vaccine is the sole obligation of the United States Government through the National Institute of Health.
Page 408. Salk. "It was inevitable that life itself would someday become one of man's principal interest and outstanding concerns. While man has long been conscious of the different manifestations and effects of life, only in relatively recent times can it be said that he has begun to discover and discern the nature of the organization and processes of life. The remarkable recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the minutest elements of living material have not only fired man's imagination and increased his understanding of life but have put almost within his reach means of great power, which will also subject him to the greatest test yet of his sense of responsibility.
Page 312. One does not become surgeon General without learning how to survive bad bargains. Leonard Scheele was good at it. He endured the Cutter affair without once suggesting that the disaster was a disaster or that any party to it was other than a splendid fellow. THE PUBLIC NEVER FOUND OUT WHAT REALLY HAD HAPPENED. When time came to assign blame, he diffused it expertetly. Those who deserved much got less than they deserved. Those who deserved little got more than they deserved. By such means Scheele contrived to save the Public Health Service and the Eisenhower Administration from the calamity of truth. In the process he saved the Salk vaccine from the calamity of total misrepresentation.
" I think I saved the vaccine situation, yes," says Scheele, who is now a pharmaceutical executive. " I had good counsel, though Jim Shannon--and this is no secret---had strong reservations about the Salk formula and the safety tests that were being used, but he did not want to scuttle the program.
Page 108. " 1951. Isabel Morgan reported monkey experiments in which poliovirus inactivated with Formalin--a killed vaccine--produced antibody levels and immunity comparable to that achieved with live viruses. Howard Howe , reported similar findings in chimpanzees. David Bodian demonstrated in monkeys that the low levels of antibody supplied by gamma globulin injections were protective against paralysis.
Page 352. The success of the Salk vaccine ended in 1958 and 1959. In 1958, there were 5,787 cases---over three hundred cases more than in 1957. And in 1959, 8,425 cases were reported.
From the book, "Breakthrough THE SAGA OF JONAS SALK By Richard Carter 1966.
Page 23. "As head of the hospital of the Rockefeller Institute, Thomas M. Rivers, M.D. had trained, hectored, and whipsawed more young virologists than any other man on earth. Rivers was dean of the field and reveled in his eminence. As chairman of committees that advised O'Connor about research grants, Rivers was a potent factor in winning for the National Foundation the scientific respectability that it needed.
This interview was given 11 years after the great salk vaccine massacre of 1955 and 5 years after they stopped using his vaccine and replaced it with Albert Sabin's so-called sugar vaccine pill in 1960 which was tested in Russia. The book is pro-Salk, but I got the feeling that the author was hoping someone would read between the lines or put together his priceless info with information from the past. Looks like I was the man. What follows is the story of the lies and cover-up.
Page 58. " O'Connor had most virologist eating out of his hand, having demonstrated knowledge, discretion, administration power, and access to huge amounts of grant money.
Polio workers had been profoundly impressed by the ruination of Joseph Kolmer and Maurice Brodie after the deaths of children inoculated with their vaccines. "
In 1935 Brodie and Kolmer did the same experiment. One had a "live' virus and the other the 'killed" virus. Thomas Rivers was a part of it. Salk invented nothing.
Page 62. Dr. Charles Armstrong of the United States Public Health Service, discover that the Lansing strain of poliovirus would grow in cotton rats.
Page 206. The study was to be conducted under an "openend" grant from the National Foundation, permitting the University of Michigan to spend more than a million dollars.
Page 395. " Scientists are like poets or other self-opinionated types. Most of them are burned out after the age of 40. The only reason many of them don't booze themselves to death is that society pays them to waste time, absolving them of responsibility and blame.
Page 160. Salk. " The principle of vaccination is not difficult to understand. A vaccine is made of the virus that causes the disease. Then, when the vaccine is injected, the body reacts with the formation of antibodies. These antibodies are found in the blood and remain there to defend against future attacks.
Page 188. "Frank Horsfall (vice President of the Rockefeller Institute) told Tom Rivers, 'If the vaccine fails it will be a black mark against him."
Page 125. " On December 4, 1951, Salk went to the Commodore Hotel in New York to attend the Immunization Committee meeting. The committee was composed of David Bodian, John Enders, Tom Francis, Howard Howe, Albert Sabin, Joe Smadel, Salk, Basil O'Connor, Tom Rivers, and the Foundation's Director, Hart Van Riper, among others.
The first question before the group was ticklish. How could anyone who wanted to make an inactivated polio vaccine be sure that he had really inactivated the virus? Tom Rivers said,"I think we will all admit," "that there is no test to be sure the stuff is inactive. Why not just accept that? Why kid ourselves?" "Why use the word inactive? Why not just say, 'safe for use? It won't produce disease, and that's all there is to it."
Page 5. "Basil O'Connor had been President Franklin D. Roosevelt's law partner and crony.
Page 351. HERD EFFECT.
"Jonas Salk and Tommy Francis in 1943 after their double-blind test of influenza vaccine in dormitories at the University of Michigan. They had found that unvaccinated students who lived in the same dormitories as vaccinated students caught less flu than unvaccinated students whose dormitory mates were also unvaccinated.
Obviously, the presence of a significant number of immunized persons in a dormitory--or a neighborhood--affected the spread of infection by interrupting the chain of transmission.
Page 315. "It is difficult to say whether or not the association between vaccination and the reported cases is one of cause and effect or one of coincidence.
Page 381. " No known laboratory test could prove beyond all doubt that a given case of polio had been caused by the vaccine.
Page 207. In thinking about the field trial, these thoughts were concerning." Human lives were at stake, public confidence in medical research was at stake; Basil O'Connor's crusade against disease was at stake; Salk's own career was at stake.
Page 100. "When Salk submitted a formal application for a new National Foundation grant on July 12, 1950, he made no mention of using mentally defective children for experimental purposes.
Page 110. On February 27, 1950 Hilary Koprowski fed live virus to human beings. " This was infected rat brain dipped in chocolate.
Page 120. Salk acknowledges that the Salk Institute for Biological Studies at La Jolla, California, could scarcely have been conceived, much less planned, built, and staffed without O'Connor.
Page 236." The committee voted quickly, and without dissent, to recommend that the field trial begin. For men of pride who had come so far together, no other decision was possible. There had been meetings at which Tom Rivers had bellowed contempt for their caution: "Goddam it, I have more at stake in this than any of you."
Page 260. "Do you think O'Connor would have had a to-do in Ann Arbor if he didn't know in advance that the vaccine was a success?
The end of the greatest medical fraud in history.
But our beginning of exposing it.
You can no longer trust your doctor because they have been lied to and misinformed by people like these sick, greedy money before kids vultures. Please take the time to study this and teach your friends, neighbors, and relatives, while you can. The future of America depends on those of you who now know the truth.
Page 44. " On April 12, 1942, exactly thirteen years before the day on which he would become a world celebrity, Salk arrived at the University of Michigan to begin work under a National Foundation grant of $2,100 for the year.
Page 233. "My Vaccine Advisory Committee was a wonderful group," says Basil O'Connor. "They had all put their scientific heads on the block, and knew it. Old Tom Rivers sat up there in his office at the Rockefeller Institute and approved the manufacturing protocols on every bit of field-trial vaccine, which meant he was on the hot seat if anything went wrong.
Page 243. O'Connor. "His staff biostatistician Gabriel Stickle, had for years been compiling and maintaining the country's only reliable records of polio incidence."
Page 245. "Every step in the development and trial of the polio vaccine," was submitted to, supervised, and approved by a committee of distinguished scientist, all of whom are members of the American Medical Association. This Vaccine Advisory Committee is headed by Dr. Thomas M. Rivers, Director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
Page 114. Dr John Enders. Said to grow the polio virus. " Using monkey testes as a available tissue to isolate virus readily from human stool suspensions.
Page 103. Salk in a letter to Weaver. "You might be interested to know that we have already fed antibody to monkeys."
Page 311. " A statute enacted in 1905 prohibited federal officers to disclose information concerning business processes.
Page 357. Between 1953 and 1961, the National Foundation supported Albert Sabin's vaccine studies with grants of $1.19 million His most powerful friend in court was Tom Rivers.
Page 319. "We felt that no lasting good could come to science or the public if the Public Health Service were discredited.
Page 260. Among virologists, immunologists, and others in the scientific community who knew more about the Salk vaccine than the AMA'''''s strategist did, the attitude toward the plans for announcing Tom Francis' findings was even less favorable. To these scientists, the Ann Arbor meeting was a promotional charade. They regarded the outcome of the field trial as a foregone conclusion.
Page 270. " The reporters would be given the official press release and a copy of Francis' report only an hour earlier. One hour in which to read, attempt to comprehend, and try to phrase news bulletins about one of the most complicated projects in medical history. Writers called the release not only inadequate but misleading. The atmosphere of the release, declared AP-man Alton Blakeslee, was 'circuslike, ill befiting a story of such importance." "We don't like being put in the position of hungry dogs at a garbage pail,' declared Jack Geiger, of International News Service."
Page 317. " On Friday, April 29, Salk was in Bethesda for the first of numerous meetings at which he and other scientists attempted to understand and explain the Cutter incident and devise measures that might prevent a recurrence. With David Bodian, John Enders, Tom Francis, Albert Sabin, and Dr. Edward H. Lennette, Director of the Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory of the California State Department of Public Health, Salk had been appointed to a Special Committee to Consider Problems Related to Poliomyelitis Vaccine. These leading scientist now became--by force of law---the accomplices of government and industry in withholding the truth from the American people. The transcripts of the meetings were impounded and have never been made public. To this day none of the scientist speaks freely of what took place in the confereness that began on April 29, 1955. "
Page 329. " And word came from Dr. Louis P. Gebhardt of the University of Utah, Salk's former colleague in the virus-typing program, that a shot of Cutter vaccine had killed a monkey.
Page 256. "Tradition required that the medical profession and Francis scientific peers have time to mull over his report before anything more be done with it."
This never happened.
Page 209. "The NIH people may have been only casual acquaintances of polio but knew full well that Salk's theories were disputed in his own field. His assurances that poliovirus died at a reliably constant rate when exposed to Formalin under properly controlled conditions were granted small credence in Bethesda.
His semilogarithmic, straight-line graph, similar to those that depict the half-life of radium or the progress of a first-order chemical reaction, left Bethesda cold. His contention that nine days of inactivation in accordance with the graph would permit the survival of poliovirus at the rate of not more than one infectious particle for every million tons of vaccine was dismissed as unproved and unprovable.
Page 96. "Under the rules, Tom Rivers would have to approve the proposed experiments before the National Foundation could sponsor them.
Page 139. The levels of antibody were high enough to destroy living polioviruses, Salk saw it under his microscope. "It was the thrill of my life,"Salk says, " Compared to the feeling I got seeing those results under the microscope. "
Author's Note Page 415.
Salk submitted to interviews only after years of merciless badgering.
Page 273. "The indignation of the press was as nothing compared with the disgust of scientists. One felt like a stage prop, an item of window dressing. It was a souring experience and a black eye for us all.
Page 118. "O'Connor's younger daughter, Bettyann Culver, not yet fully recovered from a recent attack of polio."
Page 10. "Transmitted in fecal matter or in secretions of the nose and throat the virus enters its victim by way of the mouth, establishes itself in the intestines and travels there to the spinal cord or brain." If you started this journey from page one you know the virus was a lie. And they knew it too.
Page 399. An acquaintance asked Salk to join a group that proposed to devise and foster new means of coping with the world's population growth.
Page 37. Tommy Francis had got Jonas Salk a grant of $100.00 a month from the Rockefeller Foundation in 1939. With Tom Francis' help, Salk sought a residency at the hospital of the Rockefeller Institute. Dr. Thomas M. Rivers, the dean of American virology, headed the hospital.
Page 141. The last six months of 1952, THE PERIOD OF SECRET EXPERIMENTATION, were the most rewarding Salk had ever known. Basil O'Connor, Harry Weaver, and Tom Rivers were the only outsiders aware of what he was doing.
They quit using the salk vaccine around 1960. And began the Sabin pill.
Page 342. " As of June 1964 the Public Health Service had been notified of 123 cases of paralytic polio, associated with the Sabin vaccine."
Page 371. " On June 28, 1961, the House of Delegates of the AMA, in convention assembled, committed an act unprecedented in the organization's colorful 114-year history. It voted approval of a commercial product that had not yet been licensed for public use--the Sabin vaccine.
Page 257. " Would Francis allow an AMA committee of experts to go over his material in advance, so that an authoritative article could appear in April issue of the AMA Journal?
He most certainly would not."
Page 17. " Basil O'Connor," a professional fund raiser once observed enviously, "had an unbeatable combination. He had the kid in the wheelchair, the heart-throooob without which you can't raise a sou in this country. He had the sponsorship of Franklin D. Roosevelt. He had the disease that everyone was afraid of. O'Connor's communications experts saturated the public consciousness with thoughts of polio. Physicians discussed the disease on radio and in newspapers. Hundreds of thousands of dollars in donated advertising appeared in every conceivable publication.
Straight from the horse's mouths. The men who pulled off the greatest medical fraud of all time and those who covered it up.
Page 273. "The day started rather pleasantly for Jonas salk. He breakfasted with the great philosopher of American medicine, Dr. Alan Greg, Vice President of the Rockefeller Foundation.
Page 211. Salk. " I remember trying some of the commercially produced vaccine with Merthiolate at the Watson Home and realizing before the field trial even started that the results would be far below 100 percent effectiveness
Page 202. "I remember stopping off at the National Foundation office in New York during the summer of 1953," says Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr. Tom Rivers told me a big secret--the Foundation was going to announce a polio vaccination study in large numbers of school kids around the country."
Page 149. Tom Rivers says," If Dr. Salk's solutions were injected into 10 million children, I am certain something would happen to somebody.
Page 237. " At nine the next morning, one Randy Kerr, six, of Fairfax County, Virginia, accepted an injection of Salk vaccine and a button that proclaimed him a "polio Pioneer." The biggest clinical experiment in the history of medicine had begin.
Page 155. "Scientific tradition forbids the individual worker to reveal his discoveries to the public before giving his professional colleagues an opportunity to study and evaluate the work. Jonas Salk, Tom Rivers, Basil O'Connor, and others involved in the polio vaccine were fully aware of this.
Page 159. Salk. " I shall begin this brief story with the year 1909, when monkeys were inoculated with material from a patient with infantile paralysis."
He doesn't mention that the "material? was ground up spinal cord from a human being.